Use your browser's back button to choose another title or click here for a New Search.

How to Get the Article

 Email CTN Library (free)

PubMed Central (free)

Journal subscriber access




Bookmark and Share


From the CTN Special Issue of American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse: Read the other articles here.




Design of NIDA CTN Protocol 0047: Screening, Motivational Assessment, Referral, and Treatment in Emergency Departments (SMART-ED).

American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 2011;37(5):417-425. [doi: 10.3109/00952990.2011.596971]

Michael P. Bogenschutz, MD (Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addictions (CASAA), SW Node), Dennis M. Donovan, PhD (Alcohol & Drug Abuse Institute, University of Washington, PN Node), Bryon H. Adinoff, MD (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, TX Node), Cameron Crandall, MD (University of New Mexico, SW Node), Alyssa A. Forcehimes, PhD (Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addictions (CASAA), SW Node), Robert Lindblad, MD (EMMES Corporation, CTN Clinical Coordinating Center), Raul N. Madnler, MD (Center for the Clinical Trials Network, NIDA), Neal L. Oden, PhD (EMMES Corporation, CTN Data and Statistics Center), Harold I. Perl, PhD (Center for the Clinical Trials Network, NIDA), N. Robrina Walker, PhD (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, TX Node).

Medical settings such as emergency departments (EDs) present an opportunity to identify and provide services for individuals with substance use problems who might otherwise never receive any form of assessment, referral, or intervention. Although screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment models have been extensively studied and are considered effective for individuals with alcohol problems presenting in EDs and other medical settings, the efficacy of such interventions has not been established for drug users presenting in EDs. This article describes the design of a NIDA Clinical Trials Network protocol (protocol CTN-0047) testing the efficacy of a screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment model in medical EDs, highlighting considerations that are pertinent to the design of other studies targeting substance use behaviors in medical treatment settings. Design challenges included defining treatment conditions, study population, and site characteristics; developing the screening process; choosing the primary outcome; balancing brevity and comprehensiveness of assessment; and selecting the strategy for statistical analysis. Many of the issues arising in the design of this study will be relevant to future studies of interventions for addictions in medical settings. Optimal trial design is critical to determining how best to integrate substance abuse interventions into medical care. (Article (Peer-Reviewed), PDF, English, 2011)

Keywords: Brief intervention | Community health services | CTN protocol development | Emergency departments | Research design | Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) | American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse (journal)

Document No: 723, PMID: 21854285, PMCID: PMC3168577

Submitted by CTN Dissemination Librarians, 8/23/2011.


Adinoff, Bryon H. mail
Bogenschutz, Michael P. mail
Crandall, Cameron mail
Donovan, Dennis M. mail
Forcehimes, Alyssa A. mail
Lindblad, Robert mail
Mandler, Raul N. mail
Oden, Neal L. mail
Perl, Harold I. mail
Walker, N. Robrina mail
NIDA-CTN-0047 www
Southwest (Lead) search www
Pacific Northwest (Lead) search www
Appalachian Tri-State search www
Greater New York search www
Florida Node Alliance search www
New England Consortium search www
Ohio Valley search www

dark blue line
Supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse to the University of Washington Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute.
The materials on this site have neither been created nor reviewed by NIDA.
Updated 9/2012 --
dark blue line