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Predictors of Treatment Response in Adolescents with Comorbid Substance Use Disorder and Attention/Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder.

Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2012;44(2):224-230. [doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2012.07.001]

Leanne Tamm, PhD (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, TX Node), Kathlene Trello-Rishel, PhD (Mental Health and Mental Retardation of Tarrant County, TX Node), Paula D. Riggs, MD (University of Colorado, FNA Node), Paul A. Nakonezny, PhD (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, TX Node), Michelle C. Acosta, PhD (National Development and Research Institutes, Inc., GNY Node), Genie L. Bailey, MD (Stanley Street Treatment and Resources, Inc., NEC Node), Theresa M. Winhusen, PhD (University of Cincinnati/CinARC, OV Node).

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with substance use disorder (SUD) and is associated with poor substance-use treatment outcomes. A National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network study (CTN-0028) evaluating osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) for adolescents with ADHD and SUD, concurrently receiving behavioral therapy, revealed inconsistent medication effects on ADHD or SUD. Clinical care for this population would be advanced by knowledge of treatment outcome predictors. Data from the randomized placebo-controlled trial (n=299) were analyzed. Significant treatment predictors included: 1) Substance use severity, associated with poorer ADHD and SUC outcomes, 2) ADHD severity, associated with better ADHD and SUD outcomes, 3) comorbid conduct disorder, associated with poorer ADHD outcomes, and 4) court-mandated status, associated with better SUD outcomes by poorer treatment completion. An interaction effect showed that OROS-MPH improved SUD outcomes in adolescents with comorbid conduct disorder compared to placebo.

Conclusions: Individuals with ADHD and SUD who are also diagnosed with conduct disorder could benefit from concurrent treatment with OROS-MPH in addition to treatment for SUD. The study also found that individuals with more severe ADHD but less severe SUD showed better treatment outcomes. With regards to mandating treatment, better SUD outcomes were found in adolescents court-mandated to receive treatment, but there were also lower treatment completion rates in the court-mandated group. Thus, particular focus on treatment retention efforts might be important for this group in order to achieve better SUD outcomes. (Article (Peer-Reviewed), PDF, English, 2012)

Keywords: Adolescents | Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) | Community health services | Concerta | Co-occurring disorders | CTN platform/ancillary study | Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) | Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (journal)

Document No: 851, PMCID: 22889694, PMCID: PMC3499678.

Submitted by the Leanne Tamm, PhD, Tx Node, 8/20/2012.

Acosta, Michelle C. search
Bailey, Genie L. search mail
Nakonezny, Paul A. search
Riggs, Paula D. search mail
Tamm, Leanne search mail
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Winhusen, Theresa M. search mail
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